First, the fermentation engineering concepts
Using modern engineering techniques, the use of certain functions of microorganisms to produce useful products for mankind, or directly to the microorganisms used in industrial production process of a new technology.
Second, the contents fermentation engineering
Fermentation engineering content includes the following basic steps: Strain to → Medium Configuration → sterilization → expand culture and inoculation → separation and purification of the fermentation process
1, strains breeding
Breeding: first isolated from nature in the corresponding strain; Mutation screening to meet the production requirements of good bacteria; the use of genetic engineering, cell engineering or engineering bacteria to build engineered cells.
2 medium configuration
Principles medium configuration: Depending on the species, choose different materials formulated media.
Preparation of a medium should meet the nutritional requirements of microbial carbon, nitrogen growth factors, water, inorganic salts, etc., and provide microorganisms suitable PH.
Nutrient medium to coordinate, facilitate synthesis product.
Medium in meeting the nutritional needs of microorganisms on the basis of production costs should be minimized in order to obtain a higher economic efficiency.
Sterilization reason: In the fermentation process, such as mixed with other microorganisms, and bacteria will form a competitive relationship, adversely affect the fermentation process.
4, expanding training and vaccination
Expand culture: culture is the culture to expand the number of bacterial cells to be separated, separately cultured to induce a rapid increase in the number of bacteria, the bacteria can get a lot in a short time
Vaccination: With sufficient for the production of bacteria, during vaccination to guard against bacterial contamination
5, the fermentation process
Fermentation products: fermentation products, mainly in the generation of stable cell growth.
Fermentation process: in the fermentation process at any time the number of bacteria culture sample testing, product concentration was to understand the fermentation process, time to add the necessary medium components to extend the time period of stable cell growth, in order to get more fermentation product.
Fermentation conditions: Fermentation in temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, etc. have a significant impact on the fermentation process.
6, separation and purification
Different fermentation products, separation and purification methods will vary, product separation, purification methods generally are:
Metabolites: distillation, extraction, ion exchange methods.
Cell itself: filtration, precipitation.
Applications Third, fermentation engineering
1, in medicine:
Fermentation engineering can produce people need medicines. For example: by Penicillium fermentation to produce penicillin.
It can be produced by fermentation gene engineering drugs. For example: the synthetic human insulin gene transferred into E. coli cells to construct the "engineering strain" through train "engineering strain" to get human insulin.
2, in the food industry:
Fermentation engineering can provide people with a rich quality of traditional fermented products. Such as: production groan liquor, wine and so on.
Fermentation engineering can produce a variety of food additives. For example,
Sour agent: citric acid, lactic acid and the like; flavor enhancer: glutamic acid;
Pigment: β- carotene; Sweeteners: high fructose corn syrup and the like.
Fermentation engineering to solve mankind can open new avenues for food shortages. For example: by fermentation get a lot of microbial cells - single-cell protein. 1980 annual production of single cell protein mid worldwide reached 2.0x107t, widely used in food processing and feed.